Due to the stress strain relationship of the quartz plate, the frequency of the resonator is affected by gravity. Physical tuning the resonator around one or more of the axes will change the frequency of the device as the resonator actually "sags" under the load. The effect varies with quartz plate orientation the crystallographic axis or combination of axes and the amount of gravitation force applied. Resonators going from 1 g of equilibrium to a high-g environment will demonstrate a dramatic change in frequency as the additional g-forces are applied to the resonator.
The 2g tip-over test is a way to demonstrate the effect of gravity and acceleration on a quartz resonator. A quartz crystal resting on a desk is being subjected to 1 g. By simply turning it over (180 deg. of rotation) it will experience another 1 g of gravitation force. The two forces, the 1 g at rest and the 1 g at turnover are additive, hence, the resonator is subjected to 2 gs. If the 2 g tip-over test is conducted with frequency measurements In all three axes, a significant change in frequency can be detected.
Sensitivity to the 2 g tip-over test will vary with the type of Cut. Stress compensated crystals with their stress compensation will be less sensitive and exhibit smaller frequency changes. G sensitivity range will be low parts in 10-9 or 10-10 depending on cut.
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